【技術文章】USB 3.2 IOP 測試解析(Framework & Interoperability Test)

Granite River Labs, GRL
Wing Tseng 曾威華 

 

          本篇文章將針對 USB 3.2 FrameworkInteroperability 測試進行介紹,這兩部分屬於協議層(Protocol Layer)及功能性Functional) 的測試。

 

» USB 3.2 框架測試(Framework)

          Framework 測試因為主要的測試項目皆為 TD 9.X 開頭,所以我們說的 Chapter9 或 CV 測試也是在指 Framework 測試。使用的軟體工具是 USB-IF 協會提供的 Command Verifier,目前 CV 工具有 USB30CV、USB20CV、HUB30CV、XHCICV、EHCICV 和 MHU3CV。

          一個待測物需要測試其最高速及 High Speed、Full Speed 的 Chapter9,另外還需測試該待測物的 Device Class Test,接著我們將對最常見的 Chapter9 測試做介紹。USB 裝置狀態被分類為以下幾種:

GRL, GRL test lab, USB test lab, compliance test, certification test, USB-IF, USB test, USB compliance test, USB4, USB 3.2, USB 3.0, host, device, Framework, USB30CV, USB20CV, HUB30CV, XHCICV, EHCICV, MHU3CV, High Speed, Full Speed, Chapter9, Interoperability, IOP TEST, USB IOP, USB Gold Tree, Compound Device

表 1

 

          連接 USB3.2 主機(Host)和裝置(Device)後會互相向對方請求許多描述(Descriptor),在請求這些 Descriptor 時會用到 Setup Packet,Setup Packet 的組成整理如下:

GRL, GRL test lab, USB test lab, compliance test, certification test, USB-IF, USB test, USB compliance test, USB4, USB 3.2, USB 3.0, host, device, Framework, USB30CV, USB20CV, HUB30CV, XHCICV, EHCICV, MHU3CV, High Speed, Full Speed, Chapter9, Interoperability, IOP TEST, USB IOP, USB Gold Tree, Compound Device

表 2

 

bRequest 的標準裝置請求(Standard Device Requests)整理如下表:

GRL, GRL test lab, USB test lab, compliance test, certification test, USB-IF, USB test, USB compliance test, USB4, USB 3.2, USB 3.0, host, device, Framework, USB30CV, USB20CV, HUB30CV, XHCICV, EHCICV, MHU3CV, High Speed, Full Speed, Chapter9, Interoperability, IOP TEST, USB IOP, USB Gold Tree, Compound Device

表 3

 

          在 Framework 測試中,測試目的為待測物的韌體宣告是否正確及小部分的 Function 測試(如:Function Remote Wakeup 和 Enumeration 測試),測試軟體會對我們的待測物發送不同的 bRequest 及 Function 的測試,即可比對待測物的宣告是否如實際狀況相同。當中幾個常見的測試失敗有:U1 及 U2 沒開啟、Self-Power 或 Bus-Power 宣告錯誤、bcdUSB 的版本命名宣告錯誤。

 

» USB3.2 Interoperability 測試

          在 USB3.2 產品拿認證的測試當中,一定會需要測試產品的功能性,這是 IOP 測試(Interoperability)的目的。測試原理就是將待測物與 Gold Tree 連接之後,進行整個 Gold Tree 及待測物的功能性驗證,若整個 Gold Tree 及待測物的功能性都能夠正常運作,則代表通過此測試。

          因 USB 介面最多可以接 5 層 Hub,所以 Gold Tree 的設計都是在這樣的環境下做測試。下圖為USB3.2 Gen2 Peripheral 的 Modified IOP 測試環境範例:

GRL, GRL test lab, USB test lab, compliance test, certification test, USB-IF, USB test, USB compliance test, USB4, USB 3.2, USB 3.0, host, device, Framework, USB30CV, USB20CV, HUB30CV, XHCICV, EHCICV, MHU3CV, High Speed, Full Speed, Chapter9, Interoperability, IOP TEST, USB IOP, USB Gold Tree, Compound Device, USB Gen 2, Peripheral, embeded host

圖 1

 

接著就可利用 IOP 環境圖來測試待測物的功能性,測試步驟整理如表四:

GRL, GRL test lab, USB test lab, compliance test, certification test, USB-IF, USB test, USB compliance test, USB4, USB 3.2, USB 3.0, host, device, Framework, USB30CV, USB20CV, HUB30CV, XHCICV, EHCICV, MHU3CV, High Speed, Full Speed, Chapter9, Interoperability, IOP TEST, USB IOP, USB Gold Tree, Compound Device

表 4

 

          以 USB3.2 Gen2 Peripheral 測試為例子,測試完待測物在其最高速 SuperSpeedPlus 的 IOP 環境之後,還需將待測物分別降速到 SuperSpeed、High Speed 及 Full Speed 的 IOP 環境去做測試,測試步驟整理如表五:

GRL, GRL test lab, USB test lab, compliance test, certification test, USB-IF, USB test, USB compliance test, USB4, USB 3.2, USB 3.0, host, device, Framework, USB30CV, USB20CV, HUB30CV, XHCICV, EHCICV, MHU3CV, High Speed, Full Speed, Chapter9, Interoperability, IOP TEST, USB IOP, USB Gold Tree, Compound Device

表 5

 

          若今天 USB3.2 產品可能是 Compound Device 甚至是要過 Silicon 測試時,所需要測試的 Gold Tree 環境也更為多樣,因測試目的及原理皆大同小異,所以我們就舉一個例子為代表。

          另外在 IOP 的 CTS 之中,除了與 Gold Tree 的功能性測試之外,還有與省電狀態相關的 U1/U2 測試及 L1/LPM 測試,針對不同 USB3.2 產品所需測項也整理如表六:

GRL, GRL test lab, USB test lab, compliance test, certification test, USB-IF, USB test, USB compliance test, USB4, USB 3.2, USB 3.0, host, device, Framework, USB30CV, USB20CV, HUB30CV, XHCICV, EHCICV, MHU3CV, High Speed, Full Speed, Chapter9, Interoperability, IOP TEST, USB IOP, USB Gold Tree, Compound Device

表 6

 

U1/U2 測試、LPM 測試及 L1 測試的測試標準也整理如表七:

GRL, GRL test lab, USB test lab, compliance test, certification test, USB-IF, USB test, USB compliance test, USB4, USB 3.2, USB 3.0, host, device, Framework, USB30CV, USB20CV, HUB30CV, XHCICV, EHCICV, MHU3CV, High Speed, Full Speed, Chapter9, Interoperability, IOP TEST, USB IOP, USB Gold Tree, Compound Device

表 7

 

          最後則是我們 Current Measurement 的部分,用於 Upstream Port 測試,測試目的為待測物在不同狀態時的電流拉載不可超過規範值,以確保待測物的功耗不會過高且在安全的範圍值之內。

          Current Measurement 測試會搭配 CV 測試工具,SuperSpeedPlus / High Speed 和 SuperSpeed / High Speed 的 Current Measurement 使用到 USB30CV,High Speed / Full Speed 的 Current Measurement 使用到 USB20CV。在 USB3.2 產品最大電流拉載宣告分有 High Power 及 Low Power 兩種定義整理如下表:

GRL, GRL test lab, USB test lab, compliance test, certification test, USB-IF, USB test, USB compliance test, USB4, USB 3.2, USB 3.0, host, device, Framework, USB30CV, USB20CV, HUB30CV, XHCICV, EHCICV, MHU3CV, High Speed, Full Speed, Chapter9, Interoperability, IOP TEST, USB IOP, USB Gold Tree, Compound Device

表 8

 

High Speed / Full Speed 的 Current Measurement 測試在 EHCI Controller 下,規範整理如表九:

GRL, GRL test lab, USB test lab, compliance test, certification test, USB-IF, USB test, USB compliance test, USB4, USB 3.2, USB 3.0, host, device, Framework, USB30CV, USB20CV, HUB30CV, XHCICV, EHCICV, MHU3CV, High Speed, Full Speed, Chapter9, Interoperability, IOP TEST, USB IOP, USB Gold Tree, Compound Device

表 9

 

SuperSpeed / High Speed 的 Current Measurement 測試在 xHCI Controller 下,規範整理如表十:

GRL, GRL test lab, USB test lab, compliance test, certification test, USB-IF, USB test, USB compliance test, USB4, USB 3.2, USB 3.0, host, device, Framework, USB30CV, USB20CV, HUB30CV, XHCICV, EHCICV, MHU3CV, High Speed, Full Speed, Chapter9, Interoperability, IOP TEST, USB IOP, USB Gold Tree, Compound Device

表 10

 

SuperSpeedPlus / High Speed 的 Current Measurement 測試在 ASMedia Add-in Card(ASM3142)下,規範整理如表十一:

GRL, GRL test lab, USB test lab, compliance test, certification test, USB-IF, USB test, USB compliance test, USB4, USB 3.2, USB 3.0, host, device, Framework, USB30CV, USB20CV, HUB30CV, XHCICV, EHCICV, MHU3CV, High Speed, Full Speed, Chapter9, Interoperability, IOP TEST, USB IOP, USB Gold Tree, Compound Device

表 11

 

 

參考文獻

  • Universal Serial Bus 3.2 Specification, September 22, 2017
  • Universal Serial Bus Type-C Cable and Connector Specification, July 14, 2017
  • xHCI Interoperability Test Procedures For Peripherals, Hubs and Hosts, Revision 0.95, October 2018

 

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作者
GRL 台灣技術工程師 曾威華 Wing Tseng

擅長 USB、PCIe、SATA 介面測試。GRL 技術文章作者及講師。希望幫助大家順利測試拿到介面 Logo,彼此互相交流共同成長飛翔。

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本文件中規格特性及其說明若有修改恕不另行通知。                        發佈日期 2019/07/01 AN-190701-TW